Skip to main content

Full text of "Ruwenzori Expedition 1952."

See other formats

British Museum (Natural History) 

Ruwenzori Expedition 


Volume II, Numbers 2-7 

2. Coleoptera : Plocamotrechus. By R. JEANNEL 

3. Coleoptera: Gyrinidae. By P. BRINCK 

4. Coleoptera : Mordellidae and Scraptiidae. 


5. Coleoptera : Cantharidae and Malachiidae. 


6. Coleoptera : Erotylidae (Cladoxeninae and Languriinae) 


7. Diptera : Culicidae (Dixinae), Anisopodidae and 

Ptychopteridae. By P. FREEMAN 


Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum 

Issued March, 1959. Price Five Shillings net 



par Dr. R. Jeannel 
Gen. Plocamotrechus Jeannel 

Plocamotrechus Jeannel, 1926, Monogr. Trechinae (L'Abeille, 32, p. 543). — 1940, Ruwenzori 
Expedition, vol. Ill, p. 123. 

Plocamotrechus ruwenzoricus subsp. strictus Jeannel 

Uganda : Monts Ruwenzori, Lake Bujuku, alt. 13,050 ft. (D. S. Fletcher, 22-28.vii.1952), 
5 exemplaires. 

La forme typique a ete decouverte par L. Burgeon dans la vallee de la Nyamwamba, sur le 
versant occidental. La subsp. strictus Jeannel (Ruwenzori Exp. 1934-5, HI, 1940, p. 124) avait 
deja ete recueillie par F. W. Edwards vers 3200 m. d'altitude dans la vallee Nyamwamba, au 
dessus du lac George, sur le versant de 1' Uganda. 

Plocamotrechus rotundatus sp.n. 

Figure 4. — Long, 4 a 4,5 mm. Aptere. Court, les elytres largement ovales, regulierement con vexes. 
Brun de poix, avec la marge des elytres roussatre. Microsculpture tres eftacee, formee par un reseau 
a mailles etirees en travers, comme chez le ruwenzoricus. Tete arrondie, plus etroite que le pro- 
notum, les mandibules courtes, les yeux petits, plans, a peine plus longs que les tempes. Antennes 
greles. Pronotum un peu plus large que long, la base large, les cotes sans sinuosite posterieure, la 
base rectiligne ; gouttiere marginale etroite, les fossettes basales petites et peu profondes. Elytres 
courts et larges, les epaules arrondies; stries fines, toutes visibles, le interstices plans. Pattes courtes. 

Chetotaxie normale. Deux soies discales sur le 3 interstrie, contre la 3 strie, l'anterieure vers 
le quart basal, la posterieure un peu apres le milieu. 

Male inconnu. 

Parmi les Plocamotrechus du Ruwenzori, cette espece est la seule avec le ruwenzoricus a presenter 
une microsculpture des elytres formee de mailles etirees en travers. Mais les deux especes sont tres 
differentes l'une de l'autre, le ruwenzoricus etant de grande taille, a elytres oblongs allonges, le 
rotundatus par contre tres court, a elytres courts. Ses yeux sont aussi beaucoup plus reduits. 

I +(H4) 17 

1 8 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

Uganda : Monts Ruwenzori: Mahoma river, alt. 8350 ft., une femelle (type) (D. S. Fletcher, 
9.vii.i952). — Lake Mahoma, alt. 9600 ft., une femelle (D. S. Fletcher, 12.vii.1952). 

Plocamotrechus burgeoni Alluaud 

Uganda: Monts Ruwenzori: Lake Bujuku, alt. 13,050 ft., 3 exemplaires (D. S. Fletcher, 

Cette espece dont les types proviennent des sources de la Nyamwamba, versant occidental du 
pic Batoda, vers 4200 m. d'altitude, avait deja ete reprise en Uganda, vers 3500 m. dans la vallee 
de la Nyamgasani (D. R. Buxton, Ruwenzori Exp., Ill, 1934-5, 1940, p. 125). 

Plocamotrechus fletcheri sp.n. 

Figures 1-3. — Long. 5 mm. Aptere. Robuste. Noir, la marge des elytres roussatre, les antennes et 
les pattes rougeatres. Aspect mat, la microsculpture forte, constitute par un reseau de mailles 
isodiametrales. Tete courte, deprimee, plus etroite que le pronotum, les mandibules saillantes, 
les yeux grands et saillants plus longs que les tempes. Anteimes peu longues. Pronotum un peu 
plus large que long, a cotes bien arrondis en avant et base rectiligne, les angles posterieurs obtus 
mais vifs; gouttiere marginale fine, le disque aplani, sans fossettes basales. Elytres oblongs, a 
epaules arrondies, les stries fines et entieres, les interstries plans. Pattes courtes. 

Chetotaxie normale. Deux soies discales sur la 3 strie, l'anterieure au cinquieme basal, la 
posterieure un peu apres le milieu. 

Edeage (Figure 2) de meme type que celui de Yalluaudi Jeann. (Ruwenz. Exp., Ill, 1940, p. 124, 
Figures 1 c, d, e), court, avec l'apex simple. Il differe cependant par l'absence de coudure a la base, 
1'apex un peu plus long et inflechi, les styles armes de 3 soies et non de 4. La piece copulatrice est 
de meme forme, en U, mais plus volumineuse encore que celle de la subsp. edwardsi Jeann., deja 
plus grande que celle de la forme typique. 

Le P. fletcheri differe exterieurement de Yalluaudi et de sa subsp. edwardsi par sa taille plus petite 
et sa tete bien moins volumineuse. 

Uganda : Monts Ruwenzori: Mahoma river, alt. 8350 ft., un male (D. S. Fletcher, 9.VU.1952). 





By Per Brinck 

The whirligig beetles are represented by a great many species in the Ethiopian region. Rather few 
are widespread. The latter species usually inhabit the plains and the lowland and occur in almost 
all types of aquatic habitats. Most species, however, live in mountains or mountain ranges and 
so are geographically more or less restricted. Central African mountains, like Kilimanjaro, Kenya, 
Elgon &c. are fairly rich in such endemics. Certainly several endemic species occur, also, on 
Ruwenzori, although we do not know very much about the whirligig fauna of this area. In 1908, 
the German Adolf Friedrich Expedition collected some material on the mountain and Alwarth 
described two very interesting species of Orectogyrus (schubotzi and ruwenzoricus) from this 

The material collected by Mr. Fletcher is fairly small, and contains only some widespread 
African species. Apparently the locality where the collecting was done was below the region of 
the endemics. The specimens were collected on a very narrow muddy stream (almost stagnant) 
flowing in the clearings made by the roadside in the Semliki Forest, at 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix.1952. 

In this area endemics should be searched for in shaded fast-running streams and rivers with 
clear water and gravel bottom, especially above 5000 ft. 

The present material contains: 

Aulouogyrus algoensis Regimbart. 17 specimens. A widespread tropical and subtropical African 
species occurring from the eastern Cape to Sudan. It is almost eurytopic, living in rivers, streams, 
lakes and pools. It does not penetrate into the central equatorial rain forest area. 

Dinentus aereus Klug. 15 specimens. A very widespread African species occurring from the 
eastern Cape to oases in Sahara and in Arabia. It has been found in all types of freshwater habitats 
except fast-running stony stretches of rivers and streams (mountain torrents and similar bio topes). 
It seems to be well adapted to desert and semi-desert conditions and is very abundant in open 
country with more or less temporary aquatic habitats. 

Orectogyrus pallidiventris Ochs f. typ. 22 specimens. An Eastern African species inhabiting the 
rivers of the plains and the lower parts of the mountains. It has been recorded from Sudan and 
southern Abyssinia, Uganda, Kenya Colony, Tanganyika, Belgian Congo, and Nyasaland. 
(Records from Zambezi and Mozambique should be confirmed.) It was collected at Semliki 
in March 1908 by the Adolf Friedrich Expedition. 

*_(144) 21 


Mordellidae and Scraptiidae 

(30th Contribution to the Knowledge of Mordellidae and Scraptiidae) 
By Mario E. Franciscolo, D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

Subfamilia Mordellinae (Fowler 1912) Franc. 1953 
Tribus Mordellini (J. B. Smith 1882) Ermisch 1941 
Genus Ophthalmoglipa Franc. 1952 

Ophthalmoglipa aurocaudata Fairmaire 

Mordella aurocaudata Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 66, 1897, p. 145. 
Glipa aurocaudata Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 49, 1905, p. 128. 

Glipa aurocaudata (Fairm.) Ermisch, Pare. Nat. Albert, Miss. G. F. De Witte, 1933-35, Fasc. 71, 
1950, p. 425. 

Glipa aurocaudata (Fairm.) Ermisch, Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige, 22, 1952, pp. 19-20. 
Ophthalmoglipa aurocaudata (Fairm.) Franciscolo, Doriana, I, No. 23, 1952, p. 2. 

1 $, ruwenzori range: Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952, leg. D. S. Fletcher. 

This very large and fine species is widely distributed in aequatorial Africa; it is known from 
Togo, Gabun (Fairmaire), Ashanti, St. Thome and Prince Islands, Camerun, Congo, Uganda, 
British East Africa, Haut Uele, Ubangi (Ermisch and Franciscolo). Another specimen of this 
species was taken in Semliki Valley, Buamoa Forest and already examined by me in the material 
collected by S. A. Neave (British Museum Collections). 

Tribus Mordellistenini Ermisch 1941 
Genus Mordellistena Costa 1854 
Sub-genus Mordellistena s.str. 

The following key includes only those species of African Mordellistena s.str. having the hind 
tibial lateral ridges extremely long, running very obliquely with respect to the apical margin, the 
upper of which is the longest and crosses the entire length of tibia, and in some instances reaches 
the knee, and having generally a similar type of ridges on at least the 1st and 2nd hind tarsal 
segments. For the species having short and weakly oblique lateral ridges on hind tibiae and tarsi, 


24 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

a key has been given in my work on Mordellidae and Scraptiidae of the Durban Museum (Durban 
Museum Novitates, in course of printing), namely: wittei Pic, s/mj'/amErmisch, simillima Francisc, 
problematica Francisc, monardi Pic, jlavofrontalis Francisc, bevisi Francisc, fuscocastanea Ermisch, 
schoutedeni Pic 

key to African species of Mordellistena s.str. HAVING lateral ridges of 


1 (2) Elytra exactly 3 times as long as their combined width at base. Head a little longer than wide (as 

8:7). Vertex and pronotum reddish yellow, elytra black. Length 3*2 mm. Locality: Belgian Congo 
(Congo da Lemba, Kunungo). M. (s.str.) maculatkeps Pic, 193 1 

2 (1) Elytra at most 2-7 times as long as their combined width at base. Head as wide or a little wider than 

long. The upper surface of body may be uniformly black, or uniformly coloured, or, if bicoloured, 
then the elytra also are coloured, at least on their apical third. 

3 (6) First segment of hind tarsi bearing three oblique but relatively short lateral black ridges. Inner spur 

of hind tibiae twice as long as the outer one. Underside of two different colours, generally the meta- 
thorax and abdomen, excluding hypopygium, reddish-orange, the pygidium black. 

4 (5) Pygidium twice as long as the hypopygium. Pronotum a little wider than long (as 11:9). Basal 

angles of pronotum acute, angulate. Head and pronotum yellow-brown, elytra of a pale reddish- 
yellow colour, underside orange-yellow, excluding the mesothorax, metepisterna and hypopygium 
which are dark-brown, and pygidium black, with a paler brown band at base. Length 3-65 mm. 
Locality: Belgian Congo (Mongbwalu). M. (s.str.) nigropectoralis Ermisch, 1952 

5 (4) Pygidium four times as long as the hypopygium. Pronotum exactly as long as wide. Basal angles of 

pronotum square, angulate. Head, pronotum and elytra castaneous-brown, underside with meta- 
thorax and abdomen, excluding hypopygium, orange-red, the remaining parts blackish, pygidium 
uniformly black. Length 3-8—4 mm. Locality: Pare National Albert, River Rwindi, Lake Edward, 
Volcan Nyamuragira, Haut Uele. M. (s.str.) nigropygidialis Ermisch, 1952 

6 (3) First segment of hind tarsi bearing only two relatively short and very oblique lateral ridges. Inner 

spur ot hind tibiae at least 2\ times as long as the outer one, but generally 3 times, in some instances 
4 times as long. Underside uniformly coloured, generally black, in some instances castaneous. 

7 (16) Basal angles of pronotum acute, rounded or not at their vertices. The upper ridge of hind tibiae in 

most instances (excluding, perhaps, M. flavifrons Erm.) does not reach the knee. 

8 (15) At least two short oblique ridges on the second segment of hind tarsi. Elytra uniformly black. 

4th segment of antennae as long as or longer than the 3rd. Last segment of labial palpi of normal 
form, generally subovate. 

9 (14) Head completely black, or with a short margin on clypeus of a clearer colour. Pronotum as long 

as or shorter than wide at base. 

10 (13) Ground pubescence of body uniformly grey-yellow, with no particular markings. Head black, 

only the labrum yellow; vertex exactly as long as wide. 

11 (12) 3rd segment of antennae a little shorter than the 2nd. 4th segment a little longer than the 3rd; 

segments 5-10 moderately dentate; nth segment 1^- times as long as the 10th; pygidium 4 times as 
long as dre hypopygium; hind legs dark reddish-brown. Length 2-6-3 '° mm. Locality: Ituri. 

M. (s.str.) pygmaea Ermisch, 1952 

12 (n) 3rd segment of antennae a little longer than 2nd; 4th segment as long as the 3rd, a little thicker; 

segments 5-10 linear; nth as long as the 10th; pygidium 2-5 times as long as the hypopygium; hind 
legs piceous to dark-black. Length 3'5-4 -I 5 mm. Locality: Katanga, Congo, Haut Uele. 

M. (s.str.) congoana Ermisch, 1952 

Coleoptera 25 

Ground pubescence of body dark greyish, bearing on elytra a basal fascia, a periscutellar zone and a 
sutural line, and a transverse band at middle of elytra, and base of pygidium, of a silvery greyish 
sheen. Head black, with clypeus having anterior margin yellow, a little wider than long (as 11 : 10). 
Length 3 mm. Locality: Pare National Albert, Haut Uele. M. (s.str. .) fasciolata Ermisch, 1952 

Head having a large part of the frons reddish yellow. Pronotum longer than wide (as 10:9). Length 
2*9-3 '4 mm. Locality: Pare National Albert, Udeko, Rwindi, Vitshumbi, Kamande. 

M. (s.str.) fiavifrons Ermisch, 1952 
Only one short oblique ridge on 2nd hind tarsal segment. Elytra black, with their apical sixth 
reddish-yellow. 4th segment of antennae shorter than 3rd. Last segment of labial palpi squarish 
(very unusual). Length 3-5 mm. Locality: Haut Uele. M. (s.str.) hiteoapkipenn is Ermisch, 1952 
Basal angles of pronotum square or obtuse. The upper ridge of hind tibiae always reaches the knee. 
Pronotum a little longer than wide (as 10:9) ; basal angles of pronotum obtuse, and much sharpened 
at their vertices. Length 2-8-3-4 mm. Locality: Pare National Albert. 

M. (s.str.) nigrifrons Ermisch, 1950 

Pronotum always wider than long; basal angles square. 

All legs uniformly black; antennae entirely black; head completely black, including buccal parts; 
pygidium i-J times as long as the hypopygium ; ground pubescence grey-brown ; on elytra there is 
a basal band, a sutural line and a periscutellar zone of silver-whitish pubescence. Length 3-9 mm. 
Locality: Eala (Belgian Congo). M. (s.str.) senilis Ermisch, 1952 

At least the anterior legs coloured, either brown or reddish yellow; antennae reddish yellow at base, 
brown or black for the remaining segments; pygidium at least 2 to 3 times as long as the hypopygium. 
Ground pubescence of a uniform colour with no markings or patterns. 

Body black, with the exception of some parts on head. Head shorter than wide. Hind legs uniformly 

Head with a large area on frons and jaws yellow. Pygidium 3 times as long as the hypopygium; 
anterior angles of pronotum rectangulate-rounded. Middle legs black, with the base of femora 
yellow. Length 3-5 mm. Locality: Transvaal. M. (s.str.) swierstrai Francisc, 1954 

Head black, with only a brief margin on frons yellow; pygidium 4 times as long as the hypopygium. 
Anterior angles of pronotum obtuse, narrowly rounded. Middle legs uniformly dark-brown. 
Length 3 mm. Locality: Pare National Albert. M. (s.str.) corvina Ermisch, 1950 

Body uniformly castaneous, including the anterior part of head. Head as long as wide. Hind legs 
uniformly castaneous-brown, with some cleared areas on tarsi. Length 3-2 mm. Locality: Ruwenzori 
Range. M. (s.str.) fletcheri sp.n. 

Mordellistena (s.str.) fletcheri sp.n. 

1 holotype, labelled: Uganda, Ruwenzori Range, Nyinabitaba, 8650 ft., 7-13.viii.1952, 
leg. D. S. Fletcher. 

Length, mm.: head 0-55, pronotum 0-65, elytra 2-0, total 3-2; pygidium i-i. 
Breadth, mm.: head o-6o, pronotum 0-85, elytra 0-85; pygidium 0-26. 

Form rather narrow and elongate, strongly parallel-sided, moderately arcuate, normally convex. 
Ground colour uniformly castaneous-brown, tending in some areas, especially on head and pro- 
notum, to a darker brown; labial palpi pale yellow, maxillary palpi and base of antennae of a 
slightly paler brown; legs of a pale reddish-brown, a little darker on femora; tarsi of all pairs 
tending to orange yellow; ridges of hind tibiae and tarsi black. 

Pubescence uniformly pale on all parts of body, with no particular markings or pattern, nor- 
mally long and decumbent. 

26 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

Head almost equilateral, very dark castaneous-brown, with very feeble bronze sheen; the ratio 
maximum length-maximum breadth is almost as 1:1. The hind margin forms a very wide and 
continuous curve, and, seen from the occiput, it appears a little concave, with slightly accentuated 
sinuosity at middle ; the occipital margin runs continuously behind the eyes where it is extremely 
thin, tempora being almost absent, and forms a very fine temporal edge at the insertion with the 
jaws. Puncturation very fine, consisting of minute, isolated punctures, with interstices having 
little impressed longitudinal shagreen. 

Eyes subcircular, finely granulate and uniformly pubescent, quite reaching the occipital margin; 
temporal edge only a little protruding; the eyes are very convex on their lower side. 

Maxillary palpi pale brown, with 4th segment elongately securiform (9) and with no particular 
patterns worthy of notice. 

Antennae reddish-brown at base, black-brown for the remainder, reaching, when folded 
backwards, the half of the pronotum; for the shape of the segments, see Figure 1. 

Pronotnm uniformly castaneous-brown with the basal margin very finely edged with a pale 
reddish brown line, with some bronzy sheen under certain lights, wider than long (as 8:6); 
anterior margin bearing a rather prominent median lobe, and with weak sinuosities on each side. 
Sides of pronotum, seen from above, feebly arched and almost parallel, seen laterally almost 
straight, with only a feeble convexity at their middle ; the very fine margin beginning at sides of 
the anterior lobe, continues round the anterior angles, where it thickens a little, and then con- 
tinues on sides up to the middle, where it disappears; anterior angles narrowly obtuse, apically 
very widely rounded; basal angles rectangulate ; basal lobe regular, complete at apex, not sinuated 
at sides. Puncturation composed of sparsely but regularly distributed file-like impressions, with 
interstices almost glossy, bearing only a vestige of transverse shagreen. Pubescence uniformly 
pale, very thick and long. 

Scutellum castaneous-brown, very small, exactly triangular, heavily file punctured and covered 
by the same pubescence as the pronotum. 

Elytra castaneous-brown, rather parallel-sided, densely and uniformly covered by long decum- 
bent pubescence, 2j times as long as their combined width at base, normally convex; apices 
abruptly and separately rounded; the file-like puncturation is rather spaced, each puncture is 
normally impressed, and interspaces are rather superficially reticulate, with a pattern similar to 
that found in the elytra of M. (s.str. ) Jiavofrontalis Franc: each file-like impression has a series of 
small irregularly spreading rays, each of them uniting with rays from neighbouring impressions, 
the whole giving the appearance of a net with oblong meshes. The pleural margin of elytra is very 
sinuous, convex at shoulders and concave at middle. Epipleurae normally developed. 

Underside dark castaneous, the margin of each abdominal stcrnite with a narrow yellow-brown 
edge, covered by short and sparse pale pubescence, which is a little longer and thicker at sides 
near the epipleural margin ; the ground sculpture is normally of the file-like type, with traces of 
transverse shagreen in the interstices. Metepisterna very narrow and elongate, at their anterior end 
only 13 times as wide as the epipleurae at that level, the metasternal suture perfectly straight, and 
the hind margin straight but lying obliquely. 

Pygidimn castaneous-brown, very long and slender, 3 times as long as the hypopygium, a little 
curved downwards, extremely thin and acuminate, narrowly sulcate at base, densely covered by 
black setae. 

Coleoptera 27 

Legs: the anterior legs are yellow-brown, with the tarsal segments a little more infuscate; 
anterior tarsi with penultimate segment very narrow, and straightly truncate at apex; middle 
legs reddish-brown, the tibiae bearing a very small apical spur; penultimate tarsal segment 
straightly truncate at apex; hind legs with femora castaneous, a little paler than the abdomen, 
tibiae clearer, tarsal segments almost reddish-brown; the tibiae bear a short subapical ridge, 
parallel to the apical ridge, and two lateral ridges, the first short and oblique, the second extremely 
long and oblique, running to near the knee but not quite reaching it; 1st and 2nd tarsal segments 
with two short and oblique ridges; all ridges on hind legs black; spurs of hind tibiae yellow, the 
inner spur half the length of the 1st tarsal segment, and 3 times as the outer spur. 

Tarsal ratios: front tarsi 7:4:3:3:5; middle tarsi 18:6:10:6:8; hind tarsi 24: 14: 10: 10. 

Mordellistena (s.str.) similaris Ermisch, 1952 

Mordellistena (s.str.) similaris Ermisch, Aim. Mus. Roy. Congo Beige, 22, 1952, pp. 73-74. 

i<$: kilembe, 4500 ft.; Uganda, Ruwenzori Range, xii.1934-i.1935, B.M. E. Afr. Exp., 
F. W. Edwards (B.M. 1935-203). 

This species has been originally described from Haut Uele, Moto and Watsa. This is the second 
capture recorded. 

Mordellistena (s.str.) schoutedeni (Pic, 193 1) Ermisch, 1950 
Mordellistena schoutedeni Pic, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 21, 193 1, p. 46. 

Mordellistena (s.str.) schoutedeni (Pic 193 1) Ermisch, Explor. du Pare Nat. Albert — Miss. G. F. de 
Witte (193 3-193 5), fasc. 71, 1950, pp. 44-46. 

1 $: kilembe, 4500 ft.; Uganda, Ruwenzori Range, xii. 1934-L193 5, B.M. E. Afr. Exp., 
F. W. Edwards (B.M. 1935-203). 

It is one of the most common species in the highlands of Haut Uele, Pare National Albert, 
Uganda. It has never been recorded from Ruwenzori Range. 

Subgenus Pseudomordellina Ermisch, 1952 

As no key has been given yet to distinguish the Pseudomordellina occurring in Africa, I provide 
one below which also will enable the placing of P. semlikiana sp.n. in relation to its closely allied 

key to African species of Mordellistena subgenus Pseudomordellina Erm. 

1 (8) Body of two different colours : generally, the difference affects the head and the body, in that the 

head may be black, and the remaining parts reddish, or vice versa. 

2 (7) Elytra 2-3-2-6 times as long as their combined width at base. The upper lateral ridge of the hind 

tibiae reaches the knee. Anterior and middle legs pale yellow-brown, or dark brown. Head dark 
reddish or dark brown. Spur of hind tibiae yellow. 

3 (6) 4th segment of antennae longer than the 3rd. The single spur of hind tibiae is more than half the 

length of the first hind tarsal segment. Length above 3-5 mm. 


Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

4 (5) Body pale rust-red, head and pygidium darker; underside pale rust-red, with abdomen darker. 

3rd segment of antennae three-fifths length of 2nd; 4th segment a little thicker and longer than 3rd; 
segments 5-10 longer than 4th; nth one and one half times as long as 10th. Legs uniformly pale rust- 
reddish. Elytra 2-3 times as long as combined width at base. The pubescence of the upper surface is 
yellow, on head pale reddish-yellow. Length 3-9 mm. Locality: Haut Uele. 

M. (P.) pkiventris Ermisch, 1952 

5 (4) Body dark reddish-brown, head dark brown; underside uniformly piceous brown; 3rd segment of 

antennae as long as 2nd; 4th segment one and one-half times as long as 3rd; much thicker than the 
latter ; segments 5-10 as long and as wide as 4th; nth one-third longer than 10th. Anterior and middle 
tibiae reddish-brown, tarsi pale yellow. Elytra z\ times as long as combined width at base. Upper 
surface covered by uniform pale yellow-greyish sinning pubescence. Length 3*7 mm. Locality: 
Natal. M. (P.) zululandiae Franciscolo, 1954 

6 (3) 4th segment of antennae two-thirds length of 3rd. The single spur of hind tibiae exactly half length 

of 1st tarsal segment. Head reddish-black, the remaining parts of body black. Length 2-4 mm. 
Locality: Belgian Congo. M. (P.) luteicomis Ermisch, 1952 

7 (2) Elytra three times as long as combined width at base ; the upper lateral ridge of the hind tibiae does 

not reach the knee, and terminates at about one-third of the tibial length from it. Anterior and 
middle legs, and hind legs including also tibial spur, black. Head black, the remaining parts of body 
reddish. Length 4-4 mm. Locality: Belgian Congo. M. (P.) atrocephala Ermisch, 1952 

8 (1) Ground colour of body entirely uniform, cidier black, brown, or other colour. 

9 (10) Ground colour of body uniformly pale castaneous, oidy along the suture of elytra a slightly paler 

line. Upper lateral ridge of hind tibae not reaching the knee, but terminating a little before it, 
reaching the lower side of tibia. Anterior angles of pronotum, seen laterally, definitely square, amply 
rounded at vertex. Basal lobe of pronotum widely truncate. Pubescence of scutellum much brighter 
than that of the rest of the upper surface. Length 3-7 mm. Locality: Semliki Valley. 

M. (P.) semlikiana sp.n. 

10 (9) Ground colour of body uniformly black. Upper lateral ridge of hind tibiae reaching the knee. 

Anterior angles of pronotum distinctly or more or less widely obtuse, rounded at vertex. Basal lobe 
of pronotum normally arched. Pubescence of scutellum of same brightness as the surrounding parts. 

11 (14) Length less dian 3 mm. Spurs of hind tibiae yellow. Antennae barely reaching the base of pronotum. 

Legs not uniformly black. Antennae not uniformly black; their 4th segment as long as the 3rd. 

12 (13) Ground pubescence of two colours: on head and pronotum sericeous yellow, on elytra dark; 

elytra 2-7 times as long as combined width at base; pygidium two and one third times as long as 
hypopygium; antennae uniformly yellow, gradually darkened towards the apex. Legs uniformly 
dark-brown. Spur of hind tibiae two-thirds length of 1st hind tarsal segment. Basal angles of pro- 
notum square. Head as long as wide. Length 2-35 mm. Locality: Belgian Congo (Rutshuru). 

M. (P.) divergens Ermisch, 1952 

13 (12) Ground pubescence of one colour (ash-grey); elytra 3 times as long as combined width at base; 

pygidium 3 times as long as the hypopygium ; antennae orange-yellow at base, and piceous brown 
from the 5th segment on; anterior legs yellow-brown, middle dark castaneous, posterior legs piceous 
black. Spur of the hind tibiae half length of 1st segment of hind tarsi. Basal angles of pronotum 
moderately acute. Head longer than wide (as 12:11). Length 2*7 mm. Locality: Belgian Congo 
(Rwindi). M. (P.) unispinosa Ermisch, 1950 

14 (11) Spur of hind tibiae, antennae and all the legs, uniformly black. Antennae a little surpassing the 

base of pronotum. 4th segment of antennae one and one-half times longer than 3rd. Length 
4- 1 5-4-5 mm. Locality: Belgian Congo (Lukunga). 

M. (P.) longipeimis Ermisch, 1952 



Mordellistena (Pseudomordellina) semlikiana sp.n. 

1 holotype, labelled: ruwenzori range, Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix.1952, leg. 
D. S. Fletcher. 

This new species has one unusual feature, amongst all the Pseudomordellina known to occur in 
Africa (at present seven species are recorded with certainty in this subgenus), for it has the anterior 
angles of pronotum exactly rectangular though rounded, whereas all other species have more or 
less obtuse anterior angles ; it falls in the group having the body uniformly coloured, either black 
or otherwise, and amongst this group it will be easily recognized for it has the upper ridge, the 
longest, of the hind tibiae, not reaching the knee, but stopping short of it at about a quarter of 
the tibial length. This same feature, in the species having a bicoloured body, is met also in M. 
(Pseud.) atrocephala Ermisch. 

Length, mm.: head o-6o, pronotum 0-7, elytra 2-4, total 3-7; pygidium o-8. 
Breadth, mm.: head 0-75, pronotum i-i, elytra 1; pygidium 0-20. 

General form narrow, elongate, rather parallel-sided, normally arcuate, moderately narrowed 
posteriorly. Ground colour uniformly brown, buccal parts yellow, a narrow line along the base of 
pronotum of a paler brown colour, as well as a narrow sutural line on elytra; antennae pale 
brown at base, the remainder darker ; all legs uniformly dark yellow-brown. Spurs of hind tibiae 
yellow. Badges on hind tibiae and tarsi black. Pubescence uniformly pale, with some brighter 
sheen along the suture and on scutellum. 

Head with very weak metallic sheen, almost as long as wide, with the posterior margin, seen 
from above, widely arched, with no protuberance on the occiput ; seen from the occiput, almost 
flat, with a small concavity at middle; puncturation fine, little impressed, spaced; interstices with 
vestiges of a transverse strigosity. Pubescence pale, sparsely and regularly distributed. 

Eyes suboval, not emarginate, finely granulated and regularly hairy; temporal margin reduced 
to a narrow edge, which does not protrude at vertex; temporal angle obtuse, briefly rounded at 

Fig. 1. Mordellistena (s.str) fletcheri sp.n. Antenna 

Fig. 2. Mordellistena (Pseudomordellinia) semlikiana sp.n. Antenna 

Maxillary palpi yellow, with last segment darker, elongately securiform ($) ; its inner side shorter 
than the outer. 

30 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1932, Volume II 

Antennae brown, clearer at base; folded backwards, they reach the base of pronotum; see 
Figure 2. 

Pronotum brown, with a narrow margin at base of a pale reddish brown, one and one-half times 
as wide as long, rather parallel-sided, little convex; the ground sculpture is of the usual file-like 
type, rather close but little impressed; the interstices are shagreened with a reticulated pattern. 
Pubescence uniformly pale, short and closely distributed; anterior margin of pronotum normally 
arched, bearing a narrow and prominent medial lobe ; the margination of the anterior side is rather 
wide at the level of front angles, and continues along the sides disappearing at about their middle; 
anterior angles square, but rather widely rounded at vertex; sides, seen from above, almost 
straight, seen laterally, amply concave; basal angles square, pointed at vertex; base strongly 
bisinuate, bearing a large and prominent medial lobe, which is flat truncate at apex. Scutellum 
triangular, brown, with shining pale pubescence. 

Elytra brown, bearing along the suture a thin yellow-brown line, two and one-quarter times 
as long as combined width at base; pubescence pale yellow, long, closely distributed, with a 
brighter hne along the suture, and another brighter line on shoulders which runs towards the 
apex. Sculpture of the fde type, with interstices obsoletely shagreened. Apices abruptly and sepa- 
rately rounded. Sides, seen from above, very feebly convergent backwards, rather convex, seen 
laterally, with moderate concavity at middle; epipleurae rather thin, almost obsolete at the level 
of the posterior margin of metepisterna. 

Mctepisterna dark brown, one and one half times as wide at the anterior margin as the epipleurae 
at their middle, with the metasternal side quite straight and the metacoxal side straight cut; they 
are almost four times as long as wide anteriorly. Underside uniformly dark brown, only paler 
along the apical margin of each urosternum, densely covered with pale whitish pubescence, 
normally punctured and shagreened. 

Pygidium of a much darker brown colour than other parts, clearer at base, slender, acuminate, 
feebly arched downwards, briefly sulcate at sides in its basal fifth, two and one-half times as long 
as the hypopygium, which is dark brown, regularly terminated at apex ($). 

Legs uniformly yellow-brown, with apical spinulae and ridges on posterior tibiae and tarsi, 
black; posterior tibiae with a very small and short preapical ridge, more or less parallel to the 
apical margin, which is strongly oblique, a short and oblique lateral ridge and a second one which 
is very long, crossing obbquely almost the entire length of tibia, and terminating about one- 
quarter of the tibial length from the knee ; the single yellow spur of hind tibiae is half the length 
of the 1st tarsal segment; 1st and 2nd tarsal segments with two moderately long, extremely 
oblique lateral ridges, on the 1st segment in its second half, and on the 2nd segment one near the 
apex and the other near the insertion with the 1st. 

Tarsal ratios: 5:4: 3:2:5; 15:10:8:4:8; 22:14:12:13. 


Cantharidae and Malachiidae 

(10th Contribution towards the Knowledge of African Malacodermata) 

By W. Wittmer 


Silidius ruwenzorensis var. hancocki Pic. Nyamelaju, 10,530 ft., 14-19.vii.1952, 3 specimens. 

Silidius spec. $ prope ruwenzorensis var. hancocki Pic. Nyinabitaba, 8650 ft., 7-13.vii.1952, 
I specimen. Coloured like hancocki, abdomen completely black, including last segments. Antcnnal 
joint 3 more than twice as long as joint 2, in hancocki joint 3 only shghtly longer than 2. Pro- 
thorax broader, sides more strongly narrowed towards base. 

Silidius spec. $ prope rufotestaceus Pic. Nyinabitaba, 8650 ft., 7-13.vii.1952, 1 specimen. 

Silidius denominandus Pic. Nyinabitaba, 8650 ft., 7-13.vii.1952, 1 specimen 

Silidius spec. $. Lamia Valley, 11,900 ft., 30-31.vii.1952, 1 specimen. 


Apalochrus azureusEr. Bugoye, 4500 ft., 8.vhi.i952, 3 specimens. Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii.- 
3.ix.i952, 2 specimens. Bundibugyo, 3440 ft., 22.viii.-3.ix. 195 2, 1 specimen. 

Apalochrus patruelis Champ. Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952, 5 specimens; Bundi- 
bugyo, 3440 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952. This species was described by Champion from specimens 
captured in the Belgian Congo. The material from the Ruwenzori has been compared with the 
types in the British Museum and found identical, except the basal joints of the antennae winch 
are darker than in the type. No figures of the anterior and intermediate tibiae of the male having 
been given by the author, I believe the following illustrations made from the Ruwenzori speci- 
mens will help to recognize this species. 



Ruwenzori Expedition, 1932, Volume II 

Fig. 1. Apaloclnus patruelis Champ. Anterior tibia 
Fig. 2. Apalochrus patruelis Champ. Intermediate tibia 



par A. Villiers 

Subfam. Cladoxeninae ct Languriinae 

La petite collection etudiee ici comporte 13 exemplaires, repartis en 8 especes; elle ne represente 
done, sans aucun doute, qu'une tres faible partie de la faune des Languriinae et Cladoxeninae dont 
la richesse est considerable dans les regions voisines similaires, notamment au Kivu. Outre Fespece 
nouvelle decrite plus loin, l'interet de cette collection reside dans le fait qu'elle montre qu'un 
certain nombre d'especes etendent leur aire vers l'Est, plus loin qu'on le pensait. 

Subfam. cladoxeninae 

Genre Microlanguria lewis 

Microlanguria lewis, 1883, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., zool., 17, 1883, p. 345. — villiers, 1940, Rev. 
Fr. Ent., T. 7, fasc. 3, p. 119 (synopsis). — villiers, 1952, Explor. Pare Nat. Upemba, fasc. 15, 
p. 40 (synopsis). 

Microlanguria castanea (kraatz) 

Platycladoxena castanea kraatz, 1899, Deutsche Ent. Zeit., p. 312. — Microlanguria castanea villiers, 
1940, loc. at., p. 122. 

Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952, D. S.Fletcher, 
4 exemplaires. 

Espece largement repandue: Cote d'lvoire, Cameroun, Gabon, Congo francais, Oubangui- 
Chari, Congo beige. 

Genre Penolanguria kolbe 

Penolangitria kolbe, 1897, Kafer D. Ostafrica, p. 116. — villiers, 1940, Rev. Fr. Ent., T. 7, fasc. 3, 
p. 125 (synopsis). — villiers, 1952. Explor. Pare. Nat. Upemba, fasc. 15, p. 38 (synopsis). 

Penolanguria nigerrima kraatz 
Penolanguria nigerrima kraatz, 1899. Deutsche Ent. Zeit., p. 315. — villiers, 1940, loc. cit., p. 127. 


34 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

Uganda : Ruwenzori Range, Kilcmbe, 4500 ft., xii.1934-i.1935, B.M. East Afr. Exp., 
F. W. Edwards, 1 exemplaire. 

Espece tres commune, se recoltant le plus souvent sur les fleurs et tres largement repandue du 
Cameroun a l'Afrique orientale. 

Genre Paracladoxena fowler 

Paradadoxena fowler, 1886, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 310. — villiers, 1940, Rev. Fr. Ent., T. 7, 
fasc. 3, p. 131 (synopsis). 

Paracladoxena arrowi villiers 

Paracladoxena arrowi villiers, 1940, loc. cit., p. 134. 

Uganda: Kigezi District, Mt. Sabinio, 7000 ft., 29. xi. 1934, F. W. Edwards, 1 exemplaire. 

Espece connue jusqu'ici du Kivu, tres voisine de P. steelei arrow du Mont Cameroun avec 
lequel elle avait ete confondue par arrow. 

Subfam. languriinae 

Genre Stenolanguria fowler 

Stenolanguria fowler, 1885, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 387. — villiers, 1945, L'Abeille, T. 37, 
p. 37 (synopsis). 

Stenolanguria tricolor fowler 

Stenolanguria tricolor fowler, 1885, loc. cit., p. 388. — villiers, 1945, loc. cit., p. 39. 

Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952, D. S. Fletcher, 

1 exemplaire. 

Espece commune, largement repandue: Nigeria, Cameroun, Oubangui-Chari, Gabon, 
Guinee espagnole, Congo beige. 

Stenolanguria gorhami fowler 

Stenolanguria gorhami fowler, 1885, loc. cit., p. 388. — villiers, 1945, loc. cit., p. 41. 

Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Semliki Forest, 2850ft., 22.viii-3.ix.1952, D. S. Fletcher, 

2 exemplaires. 

Espece banale, tres repandue: Togo, Cameroun, Gabon, Guinee espagnole, Congo beige. 

Genre Barbaropus gorham 

Barbaropus gorham, 1887, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 360. — villiers, 1945, L'Abeille, T. 37, p. 44 
(synopsis). — villiers, 1952, Explor. Pare Nat. Upemba, fasc. 15, p. 17 (synopsis). 

Barbaropus dubius (fowler) 

Languria dubia fowler, 1885, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 385. — Barbaropus dubius villiers, 1945, 
loc. cit., p. 55. 

Coleoptera 35 

Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952, D. S. Fletcher, 
1 exemplaire de petite taille (8 mm.). 

Genre Anadastus gorham 

Anadastus gorham, 1887, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 362. — villiers, 1945, L'Abeille, T. 37, p. 58 
[synopsis). — villiers, 1952, Explor. Pare Nat. Upemba, fasc, 15, p. 33 (synopsis). 

Anadastus edwardsi sp.n. (Figure 1) 

Uganda : Kigezi District, Kanaba Gap, 7500 ft., F. W. Edwards, 1 seul exemplaire, en tres 
mauvais etat (antennes mutilees) 'taken in Engleromyces goetzei growing on Bamboo'. 
Holotype au British Museum (Natural Plistory). 

Long. 5,25 mm. — Tete et pronotum brun rouge. Scutellum noir. Elytres brun fauve, la suture 
legerement assombrie derriere l'ecusson, mais sans macule nette. Pattes noires. Face ventrale noir 
de poix, le dessous du prothorax et de la tete rougeatres. 

Tete assez large, faiblement convexe, finement, eparsement mais regulierement ponctuee. 
Yeux assez petits; espace interoculaire cinq fois aussi large qu'un ceil vu de dessus. 

Pronotum convexe, beaucoup plus finement mais plus densement ponctue que la tete, de peu 
plus large que long (70-67), sa plus grande largeur un peu en avant, cotes fortement convergents 
et bisinues en arriere. Angles anterieurs arrondis et effaces, angles posterieurs subaigus. Base 
fortement sinuee et lobee en arriere devant le scutellum. Foveoles basales fortement marquees, 
assez longues, etroites, legerement arquees. 

Scutellum transverse, concave, finement microreticule, imponctue. 

Elytres assez courts, fortement convexes, fortement deprimes en avant, subparalleles, tronques 
a l'apex, assez fortement mais peu profondement series-ponctues. 

Dans le tableu synoptique des especes que j'ai public en 1952 (loc. cit., p. 33), A. edwardsi vient 
se ranger avec A. jeanneli villiers. Les deux especes se distingueront a l'aide du tableau suivant 

36 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

A. jeanneli villiers A. edwardsi sp.n. 

1. Tete et pronotum naves comme les elytres. 1. Tete et pronotum brun rouge, elytres roux 


2. Pronotum mediocrement convexe un peu 2. Pronotum fortement convexe de peu plus 
plus large que long (1,10-1). large que long (1,04-1). 

3. Scutellum flave. 3. Scutellum noir. 

4. Longueur: 7 mm. 4. Longueur: 5,25 mm. 

Genre Caenolanguria gorham 

Caenolanguria gorham, 1887, Proc. Zool. Lond., p. 361. — villiers, 1945, L'Abeille, T. 37, p. 225 
(synopsis). — villiers, 1952, Explor. Pare Nat. Upemba, fasc. 15, p. 37 (synopsis). 

Caenolanguria burgeoni villiers 

Caenolanguria burgeoni villiers, 1942, Explor. Pare Nat. Albert, fasc. 36, p. 16 et 17. 

Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Semliki Forest, 2850 ft., 22.viii-3.ix. 1952, D. S. Fletcher, 
2 exemplaires. 

Espece connue seulement jusqu'ici, du Congo beige (Kivu et Ruanda). 




Culicidae Subfamily Dixinae, Anisopodidae and 


By Paul Freeman 

Representatives of these three groups were collected by the British Museum East African 
Expedition 1934-5 hut none were taken by the Second Expedition in 1952. This account is 
included in the second series of Reports for administrative reasons as explained in the Introduction. 
The material taken by Dr. Edwards is very rich and has added greatlv to our knowledge of each 
of these groups. 

Culicidae Subfamily Dixinae 

The British Museum East African Expedition 1934-5 collected 2S specimens belonging to two 
species of this little collected group, increasing the African material in the Museum to over 70 
specimens. A revision of the African species of the subfamily has been prepared and has been 
published elsewhere (Freeman, 1956). 

Dixa camerounensis Alexander 

Dixa (Paradixa) camerounensis Alexander, 1926, Insec. Inscit. Menstr., 14:11. 

This is the palest of the African species, in many specimens the thorax is yellow with the stripes 
only slightly darker; the 'cord' or line of cross-veins is more transverse than in other species. 

ruwenzori range: Kilembe, 4500 ft., 2 q I Namwamba Valley, 6500 ft., 1 

Dixa claripennis Seguv 

Dixa claripennis Seguy, 1938, Miss, scient. Omo, 4:322. 

A much darker species than camerounensis, mesonotal stripes dark brown, thoracic pleura dark 
and usually with two narrow pale bands. 

KENYA: Aberdare Range, Mt. Kinangop, Sooo-10,000 ft.. 4 3, 3 5, x.1934; Mt. Elgon, 
Kapretwa, 6500 ft., 1 $; Mt. Elgon, Forest Zone, Sooo ft., 1 3, 1 2: Mt. Elgon, Heath Zone, 
10,000-11,000 ft., 10 q> 2 $. Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Bwamba Pass (west side), 5500- 
7500 ft., 1 o , 2 $. 



Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 


The described species of the family Anisopodidae include four species of Anisopus, five of 
Olbiogaster and three of Mesochria from Africa south of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical 
Region). The collection made by the East African Expedition 1934-5 contains 25 specimens of 
Anisopus and, taken in conjunction with other material in the British Museum has enabled me 
to synonymize two of the known African species. 

Anisopus annulicornis Edwards 

Anisopus annulicornis Edwards, 1928, Gen. Insect, fasc, 190:16. 

Anisopus dibaphus Edwards, 1934, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10), 14:324 (syn. nov.). 

When describing dibaphus, Edwards remarked that it was closely related to annulicornis but 
could be distinguished by the slightly darker antennal segments 2-3, the presence of a round 
brown spot on the front coxa, the presence of a yellow subterminal ring on the hind femur of the 
male, the less hairy wings and by small (unspecified) hypopygial differences. The British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.) now contains nearly 80 specimens which show all these characters in various 

Segments 2-3 of the antennae vary from almost yellow to black; the front coxae may be yellow, 
partially brown, with a round brown spot, or completely brown; the male hind femur may 
have a clear yellow ring, or a ring distinguishable with difficulty or the ring may be quite absent; 
the hairiness of the wing membrane is variable. The hypopygium is equally variable in style 
shape but not so variable in the shape of the spiny plates at the base of the aedeagus. Specimens 
with styles resembling those of the type series of annulicornis may have the colour of dibaphus, and 
specimens with styles like the holotype of dibaphus may, in some or all other respects, resemble 
annulicornis. From an examination of species from other Zoogeographical Regions it appears 
that the best genital characters are to be found in the structure of the supporting plates at the 
base of the aedeagus ; these plates he between the styles and were probably not examined by 
Edwards because the Museum collection contains no mounts of the hypopygia of this species 
made by him. The only possible conclusion is that there is a single species and not two. 

The holotype male and paratypes of dibaphus are in the British Museum; the holotype female 
of annulicornis is in the Berlin Museum, but paratypes including a male are in the British Museum. 

Distribution, cameroons: Buea and Johann-Albrechtshohe, paratypes of annulicornis; Mt. 
Cameroon, Onyanga, 8100 ft., 1 24.L1932 (M. Steele), sao thome: type series of dibaphus. 
Belgian congo : Ruanda Urundi, Mubinga, 1 § (J. Walkiers). Uganda : Kampala, 3 2 
viii.1939 (H. Hargreaves); Fort Portal, 1 ix.1933 (H. Hat greaves); Kalinzu Forest, 3 <§, 1 9 
(T. H. E. Jackson); Kigezi Distr., Mt. Sabinio, 11,000 ft., 1 $, xi.1934 (F. W. Edwards); Ruwen- 
zori Range, xii.1934-i.1935 : Mpanga Forest, 4000 ft., 1 4 Kilembe, 4500 ft., 2 q\ i ?! 
Namwamba Valley, 6500 ft., 2 q\ 6 $; Mobuku Valley, 7300 ft., 1 $; Mr. Karangora, 8000-9000 
ft., 1 o* (all coll. F. W. Edwards), kenya : Chyulu Hills, 10 q\ 19 $, vi.1938 bred ex Conophyriugia 
(V. G. L. van Somereti) ; Kisii, 1 $ (Symes and Hopkins) ; Aberdare Range, Thompson's Falls, 
7500 ft., 1 x.1934 (F. W. Edwards); Mt. Elgon, Forest Zone, 8500 ft., 1^,1$, ii.1934 (F. W. 
Edwards). Tanganyika : holotype of annulicornis. s. Rhodesia: Umtali Distr., Vumba Mts., 

Ptychopteridce 39 

I (J, 2 $, iii.1938, ex decaying fruit of Conophyringia (A. Cuthbertson). cape province : Katberg, 
4000 ft., 1 i.1933 (R. E. Turner). 


Nine species of Ptychopteridae, all in the genus Ptychoptera, have been described from the main- 
land of Africa south of the Sahara. Alexander (1956:79) refers to a species, P. matongoensis 
Alexander, of which I have been unable to trace the original description but I understand from 
Professor Alexander that it is in the press and he has been kind enough to lend me a copy of 
the description. So far as I have been able to discover, all were described from single specimens, 
four of the nine from males and five from females. The main differences used in the separation of 
the species have been colour and small venational characters ; the hypopygium has been figured 
only for P. basilewskyi Alexander, although some description without figures has been made of 
this part for P. earner ounensis Alexander and schoutedeni Alexander. 

The species of the genus Ptychoptera are very uniform in appearance and are often variable in 
venational and colour characters. The only reliable specific characters he in the structure of the 
male hypopygium and it is desirable for this to be figured or at any rate described in any descrip- 
tion of a new species: it is unfortunate that so few have been described for the African species. 
However, F. W. Edwards collected 12 specimens whilst on the British Museum Expedition to 
East Africa, including both sexes, that is, more specimens than have previously been known of 
all nine definite species together, which has helped greatly in the recognition of the species. 

Six of Edwards's specimens can be placed easily into P. africana Alexander and they agree well 
with the holotype in colour and pattern; the males also have enabled me to recognize P.sclioittedeiii 
as a synonym from the description given of the male hypopygium of that species. The other six 
which again include both sexes and were all collected in the same locality, show colour variation 
which proves that there are fewer species in the African fauna than was previously thought; I 
am placing these specimens under P. uelensis Alexander. The final result has been to reduce the 
number of known African species to four. P. matongoensis, again based on females, may prove to 
be a vahd species, and I am offering a key to these five including details of the male hypopygia 
where known. 

Ptychoptera africana Alexander (Figure la) 
Ptyclioptera africana Alexander, 1920, Entomologist, 53:101-2. 

Ptychoptera schoutedeni Alexander, 1956, Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc, 51 : 76 (syn. nov.). 

A distinctive species, body largely shining black, head and thoracic tergum with metallic 
reflections, pleura yellow; abdomen with segment 1 yellow basally, 2 either mostly yellow on 
basal half or with a yellow ring in basal half, 3 yellow on basal half, female with ovipositor and 
tip of abdomen yellow, male with hypopygium partially yellowish. Wings with narrow brown 
stripe along costa, apex broadly brown, cord with a brown stripe, base of wing with a brown 
spot; wing markings clear-cut and not appearing to be variable. 

The male hypopygium (Figure la) is characteristic: cerci straight, tapering and pointed at the 
tip, rather polished at the apex, styles with a short upper arm carrying strong bristles and a 
longer lower spatulate arm, medially with a broad pad as shown ; IXth stemite strongly produced 

40 Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

ventrally, two-lobed below and with paired capitate processes laterally carrying dense brushes of 
fine hairs. 

I am treating schoutedeni as a synonym because the only difference lies in the paler colour of 
parts of the thorax, the styles and cerci as described by Alexander being exactly similar to those 
of Edwards's specimens. In the holotype of africana there is some indication of paleness on some 
of these parts giving additional evidence that this is not sufficient for specific separation. In the 
original description schoutedeni is not compared with africana which is the species it most closely 
resembles but with liopkinsi which is a synonym of the next species. 

P. matongoensis Alexander appears from the manuscript description which Professor Alexander 
has lent me, to be closely allied, but as only females are known little can be added until males 
are available. 

The holotype female of africana is in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

Distribution. Nigeria: Ilesha, holotype. Uganda: Ruwenzori Range, Kilembe, 4500 ft., 
4 cT, xii.1934-i.1935 (F. W. Edwards) ; Budongo Forest, 1^,1$, ii.1935 (F- W. Edwards). The type 
locality of schoutedeni is Belgian congo: Volcan Karissimbi. 

Ptychoptera uelensis Alexander (Figure ib) 

Ptyclwptera uelensis Alexander, 1928, Rev. Zool. Bot. afr., 16:25. 
Ptychoptera liopkinsi Edwards, 1932, Stylops, 1:99 (syn. nov.). 

Liriope ghesquierei Collart, 1935, Bull. Mus. R. Hist. nat. Beige, 11, no. 3:1 (syn. nov.). 
Ptychoptera hasilewskyi Alexander, 1955, Rev. Zool. Bot. afr., 36:267 (syn. nov.). 
Ptychoptera stuckenbergi Alexander, 1955, Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc, 51:78 (syn. nov.). 

There are six specimens of this species in Dr. Edwards's material, five being dark in colour with 
metallic blue thoraces. The colour and wing pattern of these five agree well with the description 

Fig I. Male hypopygia of Ptychoptera in lateral aspect, (a) P. africana; (b) P. uelensis. 

Ptychopteridce 41 

of uelensis and I have no hesitation in identifying them as this species. Some of them have the pale 
lacunae in the wing markings described by Collart in ghesquierei and there is also some variation 
in the length of the cross-vein r; the length of the petiole of R 2+3 and R4-1-5 is too variable to be 
of value as a specific character and the same applies to the palp colour. For these reasons I am 
considering ghesquierei to be a synonym of uelensis. 

In the description of basilewskyi, Alexander separated it from uelensis and ghesquierei by colour 
and venational characters. The type is a male, whereas those of the other two are females ; in the 
male the abdomen is normally paler and with more yellow markings. The hypopygium as figured 
by Alexander is similar to that of Edwards's specimens and in other ways it is obvious that they 
belong to the same species. 

The sixth specimen collected by Edwards is a male, structurally identical with the others and 
collected in the same locahty, but the thorax is orange with the scutellum and two large spots 
behind the shoulders black, also the abdomen has yellow on segments 1, 2, 3 and 4. This is clearly 
the opposite sex of the specimen described as hopkinsi which, as it is structurally identical with 
uelensis, I am regarding only as a colour variety. The thorax of the male has a metallic glint and 
it is possible that the specimen was captured before it had developed its full colours. P. stuckenbergi 
was described from a single female with mainly orange thorax marked with black on the praes- 
cutum and parascutella ; the wing markings are similar to ghesquierei. Unfortunately Alexander 
does not compare the holotype with hopkinsi, but the differences between the two in body colour 
are so slight that there is no difficulty in recognizing stuckenbergi as yet another specimen of this 
pale form and placing it as a synonym of uelensis. 

P. uelensis may readily be distinguished from P. africaua by the structure of the male hypo- 
pygium (Figure lb); the cerci are long, downcurved and with a slight swelling near the tip; the 
styles are three-branched and quite different in appearance from africaua; the IXth sternite is 
much less produced ventrally and the lateral lobes bear about twelve long stout black bristles; 
the aedeagus is also quite different. Other differences lie in the more poorly developed wing 
pattern and the thoracic pleura which are black in most specimens (not in the pale hopkinsi form). 

Distribution. Uganda : Fort Portal, holotype female of hopkinsi; Ruwenzori Range, Kilembe, 
4500 ft., 3 3 xii.1934-i.1935 (F. W. Edwards). The type locality of uelensis is Belgian 
Congo : Haut Uele, Yebo Moto; of ghesquierei Belgian congo : Eala; of basilewskyi urundi : 
Bururi; of stuckenbergi s. Rhodesia: Rhodes-Inyanga National Park. 

key to species of Ptychoptera meigen from Africa south of the Sahara, 


1. Thorax entirely orange, without any dark markings; abdomen, at least of male, yellowish orange with 

a mid-dorsal brownish black line (South Africa)* capensis Alexander, 1917 

Thorax either mostly black or metallic blue-black, or orange with black spots dorsally; abdomen darker, 
yellow markings as rings 2 

2. Thoracic pleura yellow, notum black; wings with clear-cut dark markings, including costal margin, 
entire apex, cord and a basal spot, male hypopygium as in Figure a . . . . . ■ 

africaua Alexander, 1920 and inatongociisis Alexander, m.s. 
Thoracic pleura usually at least partially blackish, but if orange then notum not entirely black; wing 
markings more indistinct, costal margin brownish yellow, apex often smoky or almost clear, cord usually 
with fairly distinct cross band 3 
2— (Hi) 

4 2 

Ruwenzori Expedition, 1952, Volume II 

3. Abdomen orange, segments 1-5 ringed at apices with brownish black (female not known); styles of male 
hypopygium elongate, cylindrical, slightly curved, tips blackened, basally with small tooth on inner face 
(Cameroons ; copied from original description) .... cameroimensis Alexander, 1921 
Abdomen darker, blackish in most specimens, males with yellow on segments 2 and 3, females with 
yellow ring on segment 2 and yellow at apex; pale specimens may have segments 1-4 mostly yellow 
in male; styles three-branched (Figure b), not blackened at tip of longest arm uelensis Alexander, 1928 

* I have been able to borrow the male holotype through the courtesy of Dr. Hesse of the South African Museum and 
find that the cerci are broken but that the styles are present and quite different from those of the other species. Each 
style is short, blunt and armed with short spines at the apex ; there is a broad, inner, rounded branch at the base armed 
with short spines along the posterior border ; the styles most closely resemble those of the Palaearctic species P. albimana 


Alexander, C. P., 1917. The Crane-flies of South Africa in the Soudi African Museum (Diptera, Tipulidae). 

Part I. Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 17:139-182. 
Alexander, C. P., 1920. An undescribed species of Ptychoptera from West Africa (Ptychopteridae, Diptera). 

Entomologist, 53: 101-2. 

Alexander, C. P., 1921. An undescribed West African species of Ptychoptera Meigen. Insec. Inscit. Menstr., 

Alexander, C. P., 1926. An undescribed species o£Dixa from West Africa. Insec. Inscit. Menstr., 14 :io-i2. 
Alexander, C. P., 1927. Diptera, fam. Ptychopteridae. Genera Insectornm, fasc. 188. 
Alexander, C. P., 1928. Two undescribed Nematocerous Diptera from the Belgian Congo. Rev. Zool. 
Bot. Afr., 16:24-8. 

Alexander, C. P., 1955. Contributions a l'ctude de la faune entomologique du Ruanda-Urundi (mission 
P. Basilewsky, 1953). XXVII. Diptera Ptychopteridae et Tipulidae. Ann. Mus. Congo Tervuren, Zool, 

Alexander, C. P., 1956. Undescribed species of Nematocerous Diptera. Part IV. Bull. Brooklyn cut. Soc, 

Benoit, P. L. G., 1953. Un nouveau Dixa du Congo beige. Reu. Zool. Bot. Afr., 48:202-3. 
Collart, A., 1935. Un nouveau Liriopeidae du Congo Beige (Diptera, Nematocera). Bull. Mus. R. Hist. 
Nat. Belg., 11, no. 3. 

Cooper, J. L. and Rapp, W. F., 1944. Check list of Dixidae of the World. Canad. Ent., 76:247-252. 
Edwards, F. W., 1928. Diptera, fam. Protorhyphidae, Anisopodidae, Pachyneuridae, Trichoceridac. 

Genera Insectornm, fasc. 190. 
Edwards, F. W., 1929. The African species of Dixa (Diptera, Dixinae). Entomologist, 62:160-1. 
Edwards, F. W., 1932. Diptera, fam. Culicidae. Genera Insectornm, fasc. 194. 
Edwards, F. W., 1932. A new African Ptychoptera (Dipt., Ptychopteridae). Stylops, 1:99. 
Edwards, F. W., 1934. The Percy Sladen and Godman Trusts Expedition to the Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, 

October 1932-March 1933. Dipt. Nematocera. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (10) 14:321-36. 
Freeman, P., 1956. A revision of the species of Dixa (Diptera: Culicidae) from Africa south of the Sahara. 

Proc. R. ent. Soc. Loud., (B) 25:163-176. 
Mattingly, P. F., 1954. East African Culicidae (Dipt.). Arch. Hydrobiol., 48:447-50. 
Seguy, E., 1938. Diptera. I. Nematocera et Brachycera. Mission scientifque de I'Omo 4:319-80. 
Tollet, R., 1956. Anisopodidae. Explor. Pare nat. Albert, I. Miss, de Witte, fasc, 86 (3): 15-34. 
Tonnolr, A. L., 1924. New Zealand Dixidae (Dipt.) Rec. Canterbury Mus., 2:221-33. 
Wood, H. G., 1933. Two new South African species o£Dixa (Diptera). Entomologist, 66:154-7. 
Wood, M. G., 1934. Notes on the life history of Dixa bicolor, Wood (Dipt.). Stylops, 3:205-8.